Sesame PDF Print E-mail

Sesame sesame or Glajlan of oil crops has been used food since ancient times, the resulting oil contains a high proportion of proteins and fatty acids and antioxidant flavonoids, which contributes to the preservation of natural properties as the use of sesame oil in cooking and still many people used in food add to their dishes And many societies still adopt it for medical and therapeutic purposes as well as in the manufacture of sweets and pies.

 

Scientific Classification: Plant

 

Section: Magnolia

Grade: Magnolia

Rank: شفويات

Squirrel: cleft leaf

Gender: Sesamum

Type: S. indicum

The binary name Sesamum indicum

Description of sesame:

The herbaceous plant, the pedalaceae, and Sesamum, which has 36 species spread in Africa, Asia and Australia, including S.indicum. It is grown to get its seeds rich in oil and protein.

Origin and spread areas

Historical evidence suggests the emergence of sesame in Ethiopia, from which it was transported to India and China and became a common food in southern Europe, northern and eastern Africa, and southern Asia. It is cultivated in many countries of the world between latitudes 40 degrees north and 40 degrees south. Sesame was introduced into the United States of America in the 17th century and flourished rapidly in many Latin American countries, such as Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Venezuela. In Syria, sesame is widely cultivated in the governorates of Aleppo, Raqqa, Hasaka and Deir al-Zour.

Interest and medical impact

Sesame Oil seeds are used as food and in the case of dizziness and dizziness in the eye and tinnitus. The seeds soften (lubricate) the digestive system and treat constipation. And increase the milk for this to be placed on the Mogat and the ring. Sesame oil is known as sereg or shirg (according to the word). It is used in cooking and frying of foods and has special consideration in the Jewish community. It is used in cosmetics. It is rich in unsaturated fats and antioxidants because of sesamin and sesamol. The leaves are used in kidney and bladder problems and are prescribed for children in diarrhea and wind.

The importance of sesame

Sesame seeds are rich in oil, ranging between 48-60%. It is characterized by its good taste, stability and specifications, and the possibility of conservation for long periods of time before it is contained because it contains the compounds of Siamol and cetamol and anti-oxidant, as well as easy to manufacture and purify. Sesame oil is used in the manufacture of tahini, halva, and its grain used in the manufacture of bread and confectionery, and in the manufacture of soap, antioxidants, cosmetics and many pharmaceuticals.

The sesame seed, left from the sesame seed age for oil extraction, is an excellent source of garlic because of its protein richness, often mixed with soya bean. The sesame seed content of the crude protein is about 45% and the fat content is up to 10%, depending on the class and the extraction method. The remaining straw can be used after harvesting the crop for heating purposes.

Description of sesame plant:

In general, sesame is characterized by green or purple oval leaves that are opposite to the lower part of the leg and are reciprocated on top of it. The plants also bear white or rosy rose flowers that turn into capsule fruits, which grow on the lower part of the plant early in the upper parts. Complete perfusion and may remain coherent until the maturity of all fruits is completed

Sesame varieties:

The Sesamum species of the Sesame family contains more than 30 species and a wide variety of varieties. The world Linne Sesame species Sesamum species are divided into two types:

• Sesamum indium L

• Sesamum orientale L

These species are grown in tropical Africa and can be divided into two groups of sesame groups:

1 - varieties of alternating or single fruit Shaltering varietal: - These are the varieties that fertilize their seeds at maturity.

2 - Non-competing or non-excessive varieties of fruits non shattering varieties There are several varieties of sesame are:

Red Category:

Which is characterized by its dark red color, rich in vegetative growth and cuttings, where the length of the plant to 115 cm at the end of the growing season and the production of this type of 240-525 kg per feddan.

White Category:

Its seeds are white and its plants are long, up to 140 cm long and the average yield is about 525 kg per feddan. There is a third category:

Giza 23:

It is characterized by seeds of creamy or light brown color, which is a relatively short plant, with a productivity of about 550 kg per feddan.

Environmental requirements

Sesame crops require a warm climate. The optimum soil temperature for seed germination, the emergence of seedling above the surface of the soil at about 22 m, and the delay in soil temperature delay germination of seeds and seedling, and small seedlings may die if the temperature drops to -1 m.

Sesame is a short-day plant. Most of its varieties respond to high optical intensities, which allow for increased plant efficiency and the production of sugars. This allows for increased vegetative growth and large green aerodynamic activity in photosynthesis. In the length of the growth stage, and then in the number of fruits formed in one plant, or in the unit area.

Sesame cultivation is successful under the conditions of rainfed agriculture. It has a deep and complex root range, and the excess moisture affects the rate of its growth and development, and it is accompanied by high temperatures in the growing season.

Sesame is a highly adaptable crop that can be cultivated in light, medium, heavy, dry, acidic and calcareous soils, free of weed seeds. And respond

 

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